ASA 105 Coastal Navigation
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Navigational skills in
The Coastal Navigation course is designed as a correspondence
course to be taken with your first program or prior to Bareboat
Cruising courses. Upon completion of the correspondence theory,
there is a practical assessment done on the water during your
cruise n' learn. Coastal Navigation topics include course plotting,
bearings and fixes, variation and deviation, set and drift, tides and currents,
collision regulations and the use of government publications.
Able to demonstrate the navigational theory required to safely navigate a sailing vessel in coastal or inland waters. There is no Sailing Skills part to this Standard and practical application of this Sailing Knowledge is found in the Advanced Coastal Cruising Standard.
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Celestial Navigation (ASA 107) - Able to demonstrate the Celestial Navigation theory required to safely navigate a sailboat on an offshore passage. The practical application is conducted in the Offshore Passage making Standard.
Age of Navigation (wikipedia)
Main article: History of navigation
China's multi-mast sailing junks were carrying over 200 people as early as 200 AD and by the medieval period were particularly massive. The Southeast Asian Seafarers, Polynesians, and Northern European Vikings concurrently developed oceangoing vessels and depended heavily upon them for travel and population movements prior to 1000 AD. In early modern India and Arabia the lateen-sail ship known as the dhow was used on the waters of the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Persian Gulf.
The astrolabe was the chief tool of Celestial navigation in early maritime history. It was invented in ancient Greece and developed by Islamic astronomers. In ancient China, the engineer Ma Jun (c. 200-265 AD) invented the south-pointing chariot, a wheeled device employing a differential gear that allowed a fixed figurine to point always in the southern cardinal direction.
The magnetic needle compass for navigation was not attested until the Dream Pool Essays in 1088 AD by Shen Kuo (1031–1095), who was also the first to document the concept of true north to discern a compass' magnetic declination from the physical) North Pole). By at least 1117 AD, the Chinese used a magnetic needle that was submersed in a bowl of water, and would point in the southern cardinal direction. The first use of a magnetized needle for seafaring navigation in Europe was written of by Alexander Neckham, circa 1190 AD. Around 1300 AD, the pivot-needle dry-box compass was invented in Europe, its cardinal direction pointed north, similar to the modern-day mariners compass. There was also the addition of the compass-card in Europe, which was later adopted by the Chinese through contact with Japanese pirates in the 16th century.